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Thetis urges Achilles to return to the battle against Troy

Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, 1640 after

WAG 1995.286

About this object

This ink drawing is a copy after a drawing (no.128381) in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, which previously considered to be by the celebrated Dutch artist Rembrandt (1606-1669) but is presently attributed to one of his pupils and good friend Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (1621-1674). The New York drawing is thought to be dated to around 1640 when van den Eeckhout was at the end of his apprenticeship with Rembrandt and his drawing style and choice of subject was still greatly influenced by his master. The copyist of the Liverpool drawing has misunderstood the background tent, in front of which the ancient Greek hero Achilles stands, and has turned it into a hovering cloud. Many of the other features of the Liverpool drawing are schematically drawn and the tall figure on the right has been repeatedly scribbled over with hatched lines as if crossed out.

In the recent past the scene has been thought to show Thetis urging her son the ancient Greek hero Achilles to re-join the battle against Troy, from which he had withdrawn grief-stricken after the death of his close friend Patroclus. Achilles is presumed to be standing in the centre facing his mother Thetis, who is holding a sword. The rest of his newly forged armour and helmet is shown in the foreground to the right, with the tall figure of Hephaestus, blacksmith to the Greek gods, towering over it on the right. Thetis persuades her son to return to the battle and avenge Patroclus by promising him that she will care for the body and not allow it to rot away.

But the Piepont Morgan Library identifes the theme as being that of Achilles and his captured Trojan slave-girl Briseis, whom the Greek army commander Agamemnon demands for himself. The scene traditionally takes place in front of Achilles tent and the confrontation involves Achilles drawing his sword in front of Agamemnon. However, the figure on the left appears to be female not male.

The New York drawing was in the English collection of the 4th Earl of Warwick (1818-1893), the majority of whose drawings came from the collection of his uncle Sir Charles Greville (1763-1832) a younger relation of Charles Francis Greville (1749-1810), a contemporary and political friend of William Roscoe, who owned this copy drawing (WAG 1995.286) by 1814. So the copyist could have been British, but is more likely to have been a 17th or 18th-century Dutch artist as there was another copy of the original drawing (no.13731) in Berlin in 1930.

Achilles’ reaction to the death of Patroclus has led many to interpret their relationship as being greater than close friends. Though both men had relationships with women, the love between the two men is presented in many classical texts as outstripping these affairs. Many ancient texts penned in the 4th and 5th centuries, including Plato’s ‘Symposium’, present the pair explicitly as lovers. It was not unusual in Ancient Greece for men to have sexual and loving relationships with both men and women. Indeed, it was taken for granted that there was an erotic dimension to male relationships. The two warriors have more recently become symbolic of same-sex love and desire. In 2004 the writer Madeline Miller, won the Orange Prize for Fiction for her novel ‘The Song of Achilles’. It focuses on the pair’s journey as a tale of sexual awakening, where they discover their sexuality.

Object specifics

  • Other title(s)
    Thetis Begging Achilles to Renounce the Fight; Achilles and Briseis
  • Artist(s)
    Follower of Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch, born:1606-07-15, died:1669-10-04)
    Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (Dutch, born:1621-08-19, died:1674-09)
  • Date
    1640 after
  • Materials
    Pen and brown ink with brown wash
  • Measurements
    paper: 18.8 cm x 27.7 cm
  • Physical description
    A pen and brown ink drawing of a scene in which Thetis (on the left) urges her son Achilles (standing twith his arms akimbo) to rejoin the battle against Troy.The figures on the far right, a soldier seated on the ground and the standing figure of ?Hephaestus, who has just made Achilles armour on his anvil, seem drawn by a different hand altogether, with heavy-handed outlines and cursory broadly-hatched shadings.
  • Related people
    Charles Robert Blundell (Previous owner); Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (Artist/maker); Rembrandt van Rijn (Artist/maker); William Roscoe (Previous owner); The Trustees of The Weld Heirlooms Settlement (Previous owner)
  • Other number(s)
    WAG Inventory Number: 11300; Courtauld Photography Number: 504/46/37a
  • Credit line
    Purchased from the Trustees of the Weld Heirlooms Settlement with the assistance of the National Heritage Memorial Fund, the Art Fund, Sir Denis Mahon and British Nuclear Fuels in 1995
  • Location
    Item not currently on display
  • Collection
    From the Walker Art Gallery collections

Ownership

Previous owners

  • The Trustees of The Weld Heirlooms Settlement

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Unknown or unrecorded
    Owned until: 1995
    Disposal method: Sold to the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside
  • Charles Robert Blundell

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Roscoe sale, 26 September 1816 lot 499, bought by Slater on behalf of Charles Blundell
    Owned until: 1837
    Disposal method: By descent to the Weld family
  • William Roscoe

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Unknown or unrecorded
    Owned until: 1816
    Disposal method: Roscoe sale 26 September 1816, part of lot 499

Inscriptions

Item inscriptions

  • Inscription text: not genuine of the school
    Inscription method: Pencil
    Inscription note:
    Inscription location: Base; Front; Mount
  • Inscription text: Thetis asking Achilles to renounce the fight [sic] / about 1633 / Kd.Kst.II 569
    Inscription method: Pencil [annotated]
    Inscription note:
    Inscription location: Front; Lower left; Mount
  • Inscription text: John Hayes 1814
    Inscription method:
    Inscription note: 'Roscoe' period tissue paper not visible in photos only noted on draft accession card.
    Inscription location: Tissue Paper
  • Inscription text: Rembrandt/ 165 / CWB
    Inscription method: Pencil
    Inscription note:
    Inscription location: Tissue Paper
Object view = Fine Art
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