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Orange-red pigment

cross section of a flake of paint significantly magnified to show several different colour layers

The orange-red pigment visible in some of the lower layers of paint may be vermilion or a red earth - Gainsborough used both pigments. The rich red used in the tree trunk has been identified as Kermes lake extracted from a European species of scale insect. The binding medium of this red glaze has been identified as walnut oil.