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  • Written by Julia Bard and David Rosenberg.
  • Printed resource designed by Andy Clo.
  • Edited by Richard Benjamin, Stephen Carl-Lokko, Vikky Evans-Hubbard, Kate Johnson, Viktoria Mihalko and Joel Quirk.

The project partners are grateful for the financial support of the Ferens Educational Trust, which helped to make this educational resource possible.

Thank you to teachers and pupils at Hope Academy, Merseyside for their help in developing this resource.

Published by the International Slavery Museum in Liverpool and the Wilberforce Institute for the study of Slavery and Emancipation, University of Hull, with additional support from the UNESCO Slave Route Project.

Case studies based on information provided in To Plead Our Own Cause: Personal stories by today's slaves edited by Kevin Bales and Zoe Trodd and Modern Slavery in the United Kingdom by Gary Craig, Aline Gaus, Mick Wilkinson, Klara Skrivankova and Aidan McQuade, and reprinted with permission.


Many photographers kindly gave us permission to reproduce their images on this website. Each photographer is credited next to the image/s they supplied, and here is a full list:

  • Forced labour - each household has to provide one member of the family to do unpaid 'voluntary' work to avoid fines or imprisonment, Myanmar, (Burma), 1995. Chris Steele-Perkins/Magnum Photos
  • Bonded labourer loading a truck at a charcoal making camp, Brazil. Courtesy of Free the Slaves/ Kay Chernush
  • Hope Academy, Merseyside, at International Slavery Museum, National Museums Liverpool. Courtesy of Peter Carr, on behalf of National Museums Liverpool
    (three photos).
  • Bonded labour, India. Free the Slaves/Romano
  • Street in Liverpool, made famous in a Beatles' song, named after a prominent slave-trader. Courtesy of Ron Davies, on behalf of National Museums Liverpool
  • The Black and White Minstrel Show, which ran on TV until the late 1970s, was heavily criticised for racist stereotyping. © National Museums Liverpool
  • Trafficked 14-year-old girl in Athens, Greece, warns others to avoid danger from enslavers. Jim Goldberg/Magnum Photos
  • Afghan child refugee used as cheap labour in a tyre repair shop in Pakistan. Thomas Dworzak/Magnum Photos
  • A young girl descended from enslaved people, wears an ankle bracelet indicating herlower social status, Niger, West Africa, 2005. ©Anti-Slavery International
  • Runaway Filipino domestic workers in Kuwait, 2010, living in a makeshift shelter in the grounds of the Philippines embassy. Moises Saman/Magnum Photos
    Child soldier in Afghanistan. IRIN photos
  • Protest against the use of slavery in the supply of Florida tomatoes outside a branch of Trader Joe's, USA, 2010.
    Courtesy of National Economic & Social Rights Initiative (NESRI)
  • Migrant workers picking cabbages in Ohio, USA. Courtesy of Bob Jagendorf
  • Migrant worker on the night shift, cleaning Royal Bank of Scotland offices in the City of London. © Philip Wolmuth/
  • Migrant workers marching in Minnesota USA, 2010, demanding legalisation to make them less vulnerable to enslavement. Courtesy of Fibonacci Blue
  • Marching for more rights for domestic workers. © Philip Wolmuth/
  • Chinese immigrants in San Francisco, USA, criticise conditions in Foxconn plants in China which assemble Apple iPads. © David Bacon/
  • Eleanor Roosevelt, former chair of the United Nations Human Rights Commission, holds a poster of the Declaration of Human rights. UN Photo
  • The writings of the freed slave Olaudah Equiano contributed greatly to anti-slavery campaigns. © National Museums Liverpool
  • Young sweatshop workers in America, 1909, wearing slogans in English and Yiddish demanding: "Abolish child slavery!". Courtesy of Library of Congress,
    Prints & Photographs Division, LC-DIG-ppmsca-06591
  • Trafficking survivor in Nepal distributing cartoons in a village to help vulnerable, often illiterate, girls avoid traffickers. Courtesy of
  • Activist, James Kofi Annan, sold as a child into slavery in Ghana, alongside Desmond Tutu at the Freedom Awards in Los Angeles, 2008. Courtesy of Free the Slaves/Amy Graves
  • Children carrying bricks, Bangladesh, 2009. Courtesy of Jasim Sarker
  • Historical site at Bagomoyo in Tanzania where the suffering of slaves is commemorated. Courtesy of Babu Kadja
  • Bonded child labourer in India behind a loom. Courtesy of Athar Khan
  • Frank, who was sold into slavery by his son-in-law. Courtesy of Balazs Szekelyhidi
  • Prison watch tower. Courtesy of Rennett Stowe
  • Children working at a brickbreaking yard outside Chittagong in Bangladesh. Ian Berry/Magnum Photos
  • Children carrying rocks in Pasay City, Philippines, 2010. Courtesy of Juan Tan Kwon
  • Products of Slavery map. © Anti-Slavery International


The International Slavery Museum in Liverpool and the Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation, University of Hull, take no responsibility for the content of third-party sites.

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