Countries of case studies
Here is information about the countries that the case studies are based in.
American Samoa is the eastern part of a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean between Hawaii and New Zealand, which came under formal American control in 1900. Its total coastline is 116km and its population is just over 67,000. American Samoa's capital is the harbour city of Pago Pago. Around 80% of its workforce is employed in tuna canneries, the products of which are mainly supplied to America.
Britain is an island northwest of France bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. It has a population of approximately 62 million, of whom 8.6 million live in the capital city, London. Around 80% of people in Britain live in urban centres. In recent decades manufacturing industries in Britain have been declining, while service industries have grown.
France is the largest country in Western Europe, bordered by the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay between Belgium and Spain, and bordered by the Mediterranean Sea between Spain and Italy. It has a population of just over 65 million, more than 10 million of whom live in the capital city, Paris. Around 85% of its population are urbanised. Although it has significant car, plane and electronics industries, most of its income is generated through service industries, especially tourism.
China is a huge country in eastern Asia. It is rich in natural resources, including coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten and many more and is highly industrialised. Nearly half of its population of over 1.3 billion live in cities and towns, over 12 million in the capital, Beijing, and more than 16.5 million in Shanghai. In rural areas, many people are very poor, with 57 million people living in great poverty.
Hungary is in central Europe, northwest of Romania. Nearly 70% of its citizens live in urban areas. Its capital city is Budapest. Hungary has a population of just under 10 million, and most of its working population are employed in service industries. Around 14% of Hungary's citizens live below the poverty line.
India is the seventh largest country in the world. It is in southern Asia and borders the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal and its capital city is New Delhi. India's population is approaching 1.2 billion, the second highest in the world. Around 30% of its population live in urban areas. It has many modern industries although just over half of its work force is involved in agriculture; 25% of India's population live below the poverty line.
Latvia is a country in Eastern Europe bordered by the Baltic Sea between Estonia and Lithuania. It has a population of around 2.2 million, a third of whom live in the capital city, Riga. Latvia's economy is mainly geared towards exports - timber, machinery, electronic goods and food products. Nearly 70% of Latvia's population are urbanised.
Mali is a landlocked West African country, southwest of Algeria and north of Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, which became independent in 1960. It has a population of just over 14 million, most of whom work in farming and fishing. Nearly half of Mali's population are under the age of 15. Its capital city is Bamako and around 1.6 million of its people live there. Although its natural resources include gold and iron ore, Mali is one of the 25 poorest countries in the world.
Sudan is a country in northern Africa, bordered by the Red Sea between Egypt and Eritrea. Its land covers a very large area making it the 10th largest country in the world. Its population is around 45 million, of whom around 40% are urbanised, though it also has many refugees from Ethiopia and Chad. For much of its independent existence (since 1956) Sudan's people have been embroiled in civil wars. It has oil, textile and pharmaceutical industries but most of its population work in agriculture. In July 2011, Sudan split into two separate countries: North Sudan and South Sudan.
Vietnam is in southeastern Asia, bordering China, Laos and Cambodia. It has a population of approximately 90 million, of whom more than 2.5 million live in the capital city, Hanoi, although more (6 million) live in Ho Chi Minh City. Around 30% of the population are urbanised. Vietnam has heavy industries such as coal and steel but also has many people employed in the food, clothing and shoe-making industries.