The Forge

James McNeill Whistler, 1861

WAG 1306

About this object

'The Forge' was published in 1871 by Messrs Ellis and Green as part of 'Sixteen Etchings of Scenes on the Thames and Other Subjects', known more widely as the 'Thames Set'.

The Forge is the only fully drypoint print in the ‘Thames Set ‘. Pennell identified the scene as Perros Guirec, a small village in Brittany, France.

The Forge was shown at the Liverpool Art Club in 1874. It was reviewed by the Liverpool collector Philip Henry Rathbone (1828-1895): “the use of ''dry point'' ought not to be encouraged, because the incisions made by the etching needle are so delicate and shallow that after a few impressions the plate becomes worse than valueless, giving a totally wrong idea of the artist's scope and intention”

New conservation work has enabled us to identify the paper Whistler used for these prints. Whistler was very selective about paper. This wasnt unusual. The Etching Revival had instigated a new interest in the aesthetic tone and structure of paper. Following Rembrandts example most etchers preferred Old Dutch paper or silky Japanese paper. Whistler searched stationers and old book shops in London, Paris and Amsterdam looking for these papers. Old Dutch paper was made from boiled and beaten rags drained on wire moulds. It was high quality with a ribbed texture and creamy in colour. Japanese paper was made from the bark of a mulberry tree. It varied in thickness and its tone could vary from pale cream to a pronounced yellow.

The paper used for these prints can be identified by its beehive watermark. A watermark is an imprinted design which can be used to identify the papermaker. The beehive watermark is shown here in transmitted light (lit from beneath the paper). The beehive is associated with the Honig (honey) family of Dutch papermakers who owned mills in Zaandijk, North Holland. The coat of arms on this watermark was widely copied throughout the Netherlands and came to represent Dutch papermaking more generally. Initialled DEDB (beneath the beehive) this variation belonged to the Dutch papermakers De Erven de Blauw from about 1822. The design shows a central beehive motif surrounded by ornate scrollwork of leaves and flowers crowned with a fruit tree.

Object specifics

  • Artist(s)
    James McNeill Whistler (American, born:1834-07-10, died:1903-07-17)
  • Date
    1861
  • Materials
    Paper; Drypoint; Ink
  • Measurements
    plate mark: 19.5 cm x 31.7 cm
  • Physical description
    Interior view of a forge with various figures. The main figure towards the left of the composition is poking at a fire while two figures wearing hats and standing behind an anvil watch.
  • Related people
    James Smith (Previous owner); James McNeill Whistler (Artist/maker)
  • Other number(s)
    WAG Inventory Number: 1306; Accession Number: WAG 1306
  • Credit line
    Bequeathed to the Walker Art Gallery of James Smith of Blundellsands in 1923
  • Location
    Lady Lever Art Gallery, Room 16, Whistler & Pennell: Etching the City Exhibition
  • Collection
    From the Walker Art Gallery collections

Ownership

Previous owners

  • James Smith

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Unknown or unrecorded
    Owned until: 1923
    Disposal method: Bequeathed to the Walker Art Gallery

Inscriptions

Item inscriptions

  • Inscription text: Whistler 1861
    Inscription method: Printed
    Inscription note:
    Inscription location: On plate; Lower right
Object view = Fine Art
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