About this object

Mummified remains of a male adult named Padiamun, an official of the barque of Amun at Karnak who lived in the late 8th century BC. His name means 'he whom Amun gave' and he held the titles 'sailor of the barque of Amun' and 'chief of navigation of the barque of Amun'. Inscriptions on his coffins reveal his father was Thatienwensu and his mother was Taditanebhen. His brother was Nehemsumontu who was also a 'chief of navigation of the barque of Amun' and his coffins are now in museums at Boulogne-sur-Mer and Grenoble.

In September 1851 Padiamun’s mummy was unwrapped at Edgeworth Manor by a surgeon named H W Rumsey, Esq. The wrappings were roughly replaced after the examination in 1851 and then rewrapped in 1976. There are several bags of excess bandages. The mummy was X-rayed in 1967 and CT scanned in 2012 . PHK Gray who led the radiograph study of Liverpool's mummies in 1967 noted that the treatment of Padiamun's body is not normally found after the beginning of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty and suggested embalmment during the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Dynasties. A sample of resin was taken from the top of the cranium in 1999 for analysis which revealed the contents to be: 61% fat/oil, 0.2% coniferous resin, 1.5% balsam (?) and 38% beeswax.

The mummy was X-rayed by PHK Gray in November 1966 and the interpretation of the radiograph images below is taken from the 1968 publication of the study:

SKULL:
There are no obvious fractures. The mouth is slightly open, some of the lower teeth are missing and there is evidence of dental attrition. The cervical spine appears intact. A spatulate object lying within the skull was revealed by radiography, and was extracted via the nasal passage. It is a surgical instrument of recent date, a combined director and scoop, lost by Mr Rumsey in 1851.

THORAX, ABDOMEN & PELVIS:
The body cavities have been filled with dense packing material which could well contain the four visceral packs. As a result of this much bone detail is obscured, but what can be seen of the spine and ribs appears normal. There is no evidence of opacification of the intervertebral discs or of spinal arthritis. The bones of the pelvis and hips appear within normal limits.

ARMS:
Extended. the palms of the hands, fingers extended, rest upon the anterior-medial aspect of the thighs. No fractures seen.

LEGS:
The bones and joints appear within normal limits apart from lines of arrested growth at the lower end of either tibia. No fractures or dislocations seen. The feet appear normal.

Object specifics

  • Type
    Animal Remains
  • Culture
    Third Intermediate Period
  • Artist/Maker
    Unknown or unrecorded
  • Place made
    Africa: Northern Africa: Egypt: Thebes
  • Date made
    747 BC - 656 BC (Dynasty 25) about
  • Materials
    Body-Part Human; Resin; Linen
  • Location
    Item not currently on display
  • Acquisition
    Gift of Gloucester City Museum, 1953
  • Collector
    James Burton
  • Place collected
    Africa: Northern Africa: Egypt: Thebes
  • Date collected
    1825
  • Measurements
    275 mm x 410 mm x 1650 mm
  • Note
    Acquired by James Burton in Thebes, possibly in 1825 when he records in his journal that he saw a mummy for sale in the house of Piccinini the dealer. In 1828 Burton sent the mummy and coffins to Grove House, Regent's Park, London (in the care of George Bellas Greenough). The coffins and mummy were seen by the Scottish antiquarian Robert Hay (1799-1863) in Thebes, about 1826, and called by him 'Mr Burton's mummy' at this time.
  • Related people
    Decimus Burton (Previous owner); James Burton (Collector, previous owner); Septimus Burton (Previous owner); Gloucester City Museum (Previous owner); Gloucester Literary and Scientific Society (Previous owner); Edmund Hopkinson (Previous owner)

Where is this object from?

Explore related

Publications

  • 'An Egyptian Hippocampus', in Historical Studies by Flinders Petrie

    Murray, Margaret

    Author: Murray, Margaret
    Publisher: British School of Archaeology in Egypt
    Date: 1911
    Description: Chapter by Margaret Murray in 'Historical Studies', pp. 39-40, pl. xxi

  • 'Burton's Mummy' in Minerva volume 7 number 6

    Cook, Neil

    Author: Cook, Neil
    Publisher: Minerva
    Date: 1996
    Description: Illustrated article in Minerva November/December 1996

  • 'By-Products of Bibliography' in the Journal of Egyptian Archaeology vol. 54

    Moss, Rosalind

    Author: Moss, Rosalind
    Publisher: The Egypt Exploration Society
    Date: 1968
    Description: An article in Journal of Egyptian Archaeology vol. 54

  • Egyptian Mummies in the City of Liverpool Museums

    Peter Gray and Dorothy Slow

    Author: Peter Gray and Dorothy Slow
    Publisher: Liverpool Corporation
    Date: 1968
    Description: Results of 1967 X Rays of the mummies in Liverpool Museum (now World Museum).

  • Inschriften der Spätzeit Teil III: Die 25 Dynastie

    Jansen-Winkeln, Karle

    Author: Jansen-Winkeln, Karle
    Publisher: Harrassowitz Verlag
    Date: 2009
    Description:

  • 'Organic chemistry of embalming agents in Pharaonic and Graeco-Roman mummies', in Nature, volume 413

    Stephen Buckley and Richard Evershed

    Author: Stephen Buckley and Richard Evershed
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Date: 2001-10-25
    Description:

  • Prepared for Eternity: A study of human embalming techniques in ancient Egypt using computerised tomography scans of mummies

    Loynes, Robert

    Author: Loynes, Robert
    Publisher: Archaeopress
    Date: 2015
    Description: This publication brings together personal analyses of sixty CT scans of ancient Egyptian human mummies collected from many museums throughout the UK and continental Europe, including eight from World Museum, Liverpool. The effect is that of performing ‘virtual autopsies’ (‘virtopsies’) allowing techniques of mummification to be examined. The historical age of the mummies ranges from the Middle Kingdom to the Roman Period. Several new observations are made regarding the preparation of mummies and confirmation of previously described themes is tempered by the observation of variations probably indicating individual workshop practices. The work presents a springboard for further detailed research on the subject.

  • 'Theban coffins from the Twenty-second to the Twenty-sixth Dynasty: dating and synthesis of development' in 'The Theban Necropolis Past Present and Future', edited by Nigel Strudwick and John H Taylor

    John H Taylor,

    Author: John H Taylor,
    Publisher: British Museum Press
    Date: 2003
    Description:

Ownership

Previous owners

  • Gloucester City Museum

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Unknown or unrecorded
    Owned until: 1953
    Disposal method: Unknown or unrecorded
  • Gloucester Literary and Scientific Society

    Owned from: 1851
    How acquired: Unknown or unrecorded
    Owned until: Unknown or unrecorded
    Disposal method: Unknown or unrecorded
  • Edmund Hopkinson

    Owned from: 1848-12
    How acquired: Unknown or unrecorded
    Owned until: 1851
    Disposal method: Unknown or unrecorded
  • Decimus Burton

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Unknown or unrecorded
    Owned until: 1848-12
    Disposal method: Unknown or unrecorded
  • Septimus Burton

    Owned from: 1839
    How acquired: Unknown or unrecorded
    Owned until: Unknown or unrecorded
    Disposal method: Unknown or unrecorded
  • James Burton

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Unknown or unrecorded
    Owned until: Unknown or unrecorded
    Disposal method: Unknown or unrecorded
Object view = Humanities
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