There is a huge amount of literature on the subject of transatlantic slavery and the following is intended only as a basic guide to further reading.

Books by National Museums Liverpool about the transatlantic slave trade and its legacy are available from the online bookshop.


  • Blackburn, R, 'The Making of New World Slavery : From the Baroque to the Modern 1492 - 1800', London, 1997
  • Patterson, O, 'Slavery and Social Death: A comparative study', Cambridge, Mass., 1982
  • Reynolds, E, 'Stand the Storm: A history of the Atlantic slave trade', Chicago, 1985
  • Thomas, H, 'The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440 - 1870', London, 1997
  • Tibbles, A, 'Transatlantic Slavery: Against Human Dignity', London, 1994
  • Walvin, J, 'Black Ivory: A History of British Slavery', London, 1992
  • Williams, E, 'Capitalism and Slavery, North Carolina', 1944

Documentary sources and memoirs

  • Childers, S, editor, 'A Mariner of England: An Account of the Career of William Richardson ... [1780 to 1819] told by himself', London, 1908, pp 41-75
  • Donnan, E, 'Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America', 4 volumes, Washington, 1930-35
  • Edwards, P, 'The Life of Olaudah Equiano', London, 1988
  • Falconbridge, Alexander, 'An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa', New York, reprinted 1973
  • Ferguson, M, editor, 'The History of Mary Prince, A West Indian Slave, related by herself', London, 1987
  • Hall, D, 'In Miserable Slavery: Thomas Thistlewood in Jamaica, 1750-1786', London, 1989
  • Jacobs, Harriet, 'Incidents in the Life of a slave girl', Oxford, 1988
  • Martin, B and Spurrell, M, 'The Journal of a Slave Trader, John Newton, 1750-1754', London, 1962
  • Walvin, J, 'An African's Life: Olaudah Equiano', Cassell, 1998


  • Akinjogbin, IA, 'Dahomey and its neighbours', Cambridge, 1967
  • Busby, M, 'Daughters of Africa', New York, 1992
  • Curten, PD, 'The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census', Madison, 1969
  • Gillon, W, 'A Short History of African Art', London, 1991
  • Inikori, J, 'Forced Migration: The Impact of the Export Slave Trade on African Economies', London, 1982
  • Law, RCC, 'The Oyo Empire c1600 - c1836', Oxford, 1986
  • Lovejoy, PE, 'Transformations in slavery: A history of slavery in Africa', Cambridge, 1983
  • Manning, P, 'Slavery and African Life', Cambridge, 1990
  • Miller, JC, 'Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan slave trade, 1730-1830', Madison, 1988
  • Pennie, Michael, 'African Assortment: African Art in Museums in England and Scotland', Bath, 1991
  • Robertson, C and Klein, M, editors, 'Women and Slavery In Africa', Wisconsin, 1983
  • Rodney, Walter, 'A History of the Upper Guinea Coast, 1545-1880', Oxford, 1970
  • Rodney, Walter, 'How Europe Under-developed Africa', London, 1972
  • Sweetman, D, 'Women Leaders in African History', Oxford, 1984
  • Thompson, RF, 'Flesh of the Spirit: Africa and Afro-American Art and Philosophy', New York, 1983
  • Thompson, VB, 'The Making of the African Diaspora in the Americas, 1441-1900', London, 1987
  • Willett, Frank, 'African Art', London, 1970

The Caribbean and the Americas

  • Alleyne, M, 'The Roots of Jamaican Culture', London, 1968
  • Amitt, Theresa L, and Mattei, Julie A, 'Race, Gender and Work', Boston, 1991
  • Bennett, Lerone, Jnr, 'The Shaping of Black America', London, 1993
  • Beckles, H and Shepherd, V, editors, 'Caribbean Slave Society and Economy: A Student Reader', Kingston & London, 1991
  • Beckles, H, 'Natural Rebels: A Social History of Enslaved Black Women in Barbados', London and New Jersey, 1989
  • Bush, B, 'Slave Women in Caribbean Society, 1650-1858', London, 1990
  • Davis, Angela, 'Women, Race and Gender', 1981
  • Davis, DB, 'The Foundations of America: Slavery in Colonial Chesapeake', Williamsburg, 1986
  • Dunn, RS, 'Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the planter class in the West Indies, 1624-1713', London, 1976
  • Hall, GM, 'Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century', Baton Rouge, 1992
  • Hooks, Bell, 'Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism', London, 1981
  • Genovese, ED, 'Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made', New York, 1972
  • James, CLR, 'The Black Jacobins', New York, 1994
  • Jordan, W, 'White over Black: American Attitudes Towards The Negro 1550-1925', New York, 1969
  • Kiple, KF, 'The Caribbean Slave: A Biological History', Cambridge, 1984
  • Lewis, GK, 'The Growth of the Modern West Indies', New York, 1968
  • Litwack, L, 'Been in the storm so long: the aftermath of slavery', New York, 1980
  • Miller, RM, and Smith, JD, 'Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery', Westport, 1997
  • Patterson, O, 'The Sociology of Slavery: An Analysis of the Origins, Development and Structure of Negro Slave Society in Jamaica', London, 1967
  • Stanton, L, 'Slavery at Monticello', Thomas Jefferson Memorial, 1996
  • Tate, TW, 'The Negro in Eighteenth Century Williamsburg', Williamsburg, 1985

British involvement in slaving

  • Anstey, R, 'The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, 1760-1810', London, 1975
  • Anstey, R and Hair, PE, 'Liverpool, The African Slave Trade and Abolition', Liverpool, 1976
  • Behrendt, SD, 'The captains in the British slave trade from 1785 to 1809', in 'Transactions of the Historic Society for Lancashire and Cheshire', volume 140, 1991, pp 79-140
  • Cameron, G and Crook, S, 'Liverpool - Capital of the Slave Trade', Liverpool, 1992
  • Davies, KG, 'The Royal African Company', London, 1957
  • 'Dickey Sam', 'Liverpool and Slavery. An Historical Account of the Liverpool-African Slave Trade', Liverpool, 1884. Reprinted Liverpool, 1986
  • Elder, M, 'The Slave Trade and the economic development of Lancaster', Halifax, 1992
  • Hancock, D, 'Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735-1785', Cambridge, 1995
  • Howley, Frank, 'Slavers, Traders and Privateers: Liverpool, the African Trade and Revolution, 1773-1808', Countyvise, Birkenhead, 2008
  • Morgan, K, 'Bristol and the Atlantic trade in the 18th century' in 'English Historical Review', 107, 1992, pp 626-50
  • Pope-Hennessy, J, 'The Sins of The Fathers: A Study of the Atlantic Slave Traders 1441-1807', London, 1967
  • Richardson, D, and Schofield, MM, 'Whitehaven and the eighteenth-century British Slave Trade' in 'Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society', xcii, 1992, pp 183-204
  • Richardson, D, 'The Bristol slave traders: A collective portrait', Bristol, (1985)
  • Schwarz, S, 'Slave Captain: The Career of James Irving in the Liverpool Slave Trade', Wrexham, 1995
  • Sherwood, Marika, 'After Abolition: Britain and the Slave Trade Since 1807', I B Tauris & Co Ltd, 2007
  • Tattersfield, N, 'The Forgotten Trade: Comprising the log of the Daniel and Henry of 1700 and accounts of the slave trade from the minor ports of England, 1698-1725', London, 1991
  • Williams, G, 'History of the Liverpool Privateers and Letters of Marque with an account of the Liverpool Slave Trade', London & Liverpool, 1897

European involvement in slaving

  • Postma, JM, 'The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade 1600-1815', Cambridge, 1990
  • Stein, R, 'The French Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century: An Old Regime Business', Madison, 1979

American involvement in slaving

  • Dow, GF, 'Slave Ships and Slaving', Salem, 1927
  • Wells, TH, 'The Slave Ship Wanderer', Athens, Georgia, 1967

Black people in Europe

  • Fryer, P, 'Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain', London, 1984
  • Gerzina, G, 'Black England: Life before Emancipation', London, 1995
  • Myers, N, 'Reconstructing the Black Past, 1780-1830', London, 1996
  • Walvin, J, 'Black and White: The Negro and English Society, 1555-1945', London, 1973


  • Bethell, L, 'The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade', Cambridge, 1970
  • Blackburn, R, 'The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery 1776-1848', London, 1988
  • Drescher, S, 'Capitalism and Anti-slavery', London, 1986
  • Eltis, D, 'Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade', Oxford, 1987
  • Lloyd, C, 'The Navy and the Slave Trade: The Suppression of the African Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century', London, 1949
  • Wilson, E Gibson, 'Thomas Clarkson: A Biography', London, 1989

Educational publications

  • Bygott, David, 'Black and British', Oxford UP, London, 1992
  • Hatt, Christine, 'Slavery: from Africa to the Americas', Evans, 1997
  • Sherwood, Marika, 'Black People in the Americas', Savannah, London, 1992
  • Stearman, Kaye, 'Slavery Today', (Talking Points Series) Wayland Publishers, 1999
  • White, Lenford, editor, 'Slavery: An introduction to the African holocaust', Liverpool, 1996

Published work relating to the former Transatlantic Slavery Gallery at Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool

  • Anonymous, 'Working with communities: National Museums Liverpool', Museum Practice, volume 1, number 3, 1996, pp 47-8
  • Bankes, G, 'Museum ethnography and communities', Journal of Museum Ethnology, number 6, 1994, pp. 1-6
  • Celius, CA, 'L'Esclavage au muse' in L'homme, Revue franaise d'anthropolgie, number 145, 1998, pp 249-261
  • Coxall, H, 'Speaking other voices' in Hooper-Greenhill, E, 'Cultural Diversity: Developing Museum Audiences in Britain', Leicester, 1997, pp 99-115
  • Devenish, D, 'Slavery: in the grip of prejudice', Museums Journal, March 1995, pp 20-21 (review of gallery)
  • Gifford, Lord, Brown, W and Bundy, R, 'Loosen The Shackles: First Report of the Liverpool 8 Inquiry into Race Relations in Liverpool', London, 1989
  • Hagopian, P, 'Museum and exhibition reviews: Transatlantic Slavery: Against Human Dignity', The Public Historian, volume 19, number 4, 1997, pp 102-5
  • Small, S, 'Concepts and terminology in representations of the Atlantic slave trade', Journal of Museum Ethnology, number 3, 1994, pp 7-21
  • Small, S, 'Contextualising the black presence in British museums: representations, resources and response', in Hooper-Greenhill, E, 'Cultural Diversity: Developing Museum Audiences in Britain', Leicester, 1997, pp 50-66
  • Steele, D, 'Case Studies: Transatlantic Slavery Exhibition' in Museums in Britain, Winter, 1995, pp 27-31
  • Thompson, I, 'Art and community: regeneration or gentrification' in Lorente, P, editor, 'The role of Museums and the Arts I the Urban Regeneration of Liverpool', Leicester, 1996
  • Tibbles, A, 'Transatlantic Slavery: Against Human Dignity', London, 1994. This book is available from the online bookshop.
  • Tibbles, A, 'Transatlantic Slavery: Against Human Dignity; A Gallery Guide', Liverpool, 1994
  • Tibbles, A, 'Against Human Dignity: The development of the Transatlantic Slavery Gallery at Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool', Proceedings, IXth International Congress of Maritime Museums, 1996, pp 95-102