About this object

Hor-wen-nefer was a high-ranking priest at the sacred city of Abydos, the burial place of the first kings of Egypt and a cult centre of Osiris. His parents were called Nesanhar and Satsat, and he is named after two gods: Hor (Horus) and wen-nefer, another name for Osiris meaning ‘the one who continues to be perfect’. He had many titles including that of Royal Acquaintance. He also shares the same name as a local king who led a rebellion against the Ptolemaic rulers about 200 BC. The mummy of Hor-wen-nefer has been carefully preserved by the embalmers. CT-scans revealed that the brain had been removed through the nose and molten resin was poured into the skull. Linen plugs were placed in the nostrils to seal them shut. The outer wrappings were coated with bitumen to protect the body from bacteria and parasites. A shroud was placed over his mummy decorated with gilded and painted cartonnage figures including the Four Sons of Horus, and the goddesses Isis and Nephthys. A gilded cartonnage mask and foot cover were already damaged in 1870 but are now missing following the wartime bombing of Liverpool in 1941. The mummy was X-rayed in 1966 and CT-scanned in 2017.

Object specifics

  • Type
    Animal Remains
  • Culture
  • Artist/Maker
  • Place made
    Africa: Northern Africa: Egypt: Abydos
  • Date made
    332 BC - 30 BC about
  • Materials
    Linen; Cartonnage; Wood; Resin; Body-Part Human; Gold
  • Location
    World Museum, Level 3, Ancient Egypt Gallery
  • Acquisition
    Gift of Joseph Mayer
  • Collector
    John Barker
  • Place collected
    Africa: Northern Africa: Egypt: Abydos
  • Date collected
  • Measurements
    250 mm x 380 mm x 1610 mm
  • Note
    Previously in the collection of Joseph Sams (1784 -1860); Within coffin M13996a
  • Related people
    John Barker ( Collector, previous owner); Joseph Mayer ( Previous owner); Joseph Sams ( Previous owner)
  • Related documents/media

Explore related


  • Catalogue of the Egyptian Museum, No. VII, Colquitt Street, Liverpool

    Mayer, Joseph

    Author: Mayer, Joseph
    Publisher: Joseph Mayer
    Date: 1852
    Description: Joseph Mayer published a catalogue of his collection in 1852, whilst it was at his Egyptian Museum in Colquitt Street. This is before he donated his collection to the Liverpool Free Public Museums in 1867 so his entries do not include the accession numbers that the objects now bear.

  • Catalogue of the Mayer Collection Part 1. The Egyptian, Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities. Second and Revised Edition

    Gatty, Charles

    Author: Gatty, Charles
    Publisher: The Committee of the Liverpool Free Public Library, Museum and Gallery of Art
    Date: 1879
    Description: 83 page illustrated catalogue of Joseph Mayer's Egyptian and Near Eastern collection that was on display. It also includes a small number of other collections, such as those given by Mr William Crosfield in 1861, some by Mr Charles Stoess in 1869, and others by Mr J. A. Tinne in 1870. Occasionally reference will be made to the provenance of objects, in particular if they are from the Joseph Sams or Lord Valentia collections. The woodcut illustrations were produced by the noted Victorian illustrator and engraver, Llewellynn Frederick William Jewitt FSA. Compared to Mayer's 1852 catalogue there are more detailed descriptions for inscribed objects such as stelae, giving names and titles and the character of the text. Much of this information was provided by Samuel Birch of the British Museum who visited the collections in March 1877.

  • Egyptian Mummies in the City of Liverpool Museums

    Gray, Peter; Slow, Dorothy

    Author: Gray, Peter; Slow, Dorothy
    Publisher: Liverpool Corporation
    Date: 1968
    Description: Results of 1967 X Rays of the mummies in Liverpool Museum (now World Museum).


Previous owners

  • Joseph Mayer

    Owned from: 1850
    How acquired: Purchased
    Owned until: 1867
    Disposal method: Donation
  • Joseph Sams

    Owned from: 1833
    How acquired: Purchased
    Owned until: 1850
    Disposal method: Sold
  • John Barker

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Purchased
    Owned until: 1833
    Disposal method: Sold
Object view = Humanities
Found media!
Have 20 place tagsPage load time: 337 ms