About this object

Mummified remains of a male adult named Padiamun, an official of the barque of Amun at Karnak who lived in the late 8th century BC. His name means 'he whom Amun gave' and he held the titles 'sailor of the barque of Amun' and 'chief of navigation of the barque of Amun'. Inscriptions on his coffins reveal his father was Thatienwensu and his mother was Taditanebhen. His brother was Nehemsumontu who was also a 'chief of navigation of the barque of Amun' and his coffins are now in museums at Boulogne-sur-Mer and Grenoble.

In September 1851 Padiamun’s mummy was unwrapped at Edgeworth Manor by a surgeon named H W Rumsey, Esq. The wrappings were roughly replaced after the examination in 1851 and then rewrapped in 1976. There are several bags of excess bandages. The mummy was X-rayed in 1967 and CT scanned in 2012 . PHK Gray who led the radiograph study of Liverpool's mummies in 1967 noted that the treatment of Padiamun's body is not normally found after the beginning of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty and suggested embalmment during the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Dynasties. A sample of resin was taken from the top of the cranium in 1999 for analysis which revealed the contents to be: 61% fat/oil, 0.2% coniferous resin, 1.5% balsam (?) and 38% beeswax. The mummy was CT scanned is 2012 - see Robert Loynes, ‘Prepared for eternity : a study of human embalming techniques in ancient Egypt using computerised tomography scans of mummies’ (Oxford, 2015).

The mummy was X-rayed by PHK Gray in November 1966 and the interpretation of the radiograph images below is taken from the 1968 publication of the study:

There are no obvious fractures. The mouth is slightly open, some of the lower teeth are missing and there is evidence of dental attrition. The cervical spine appears intact. A spatulate object lying within the skull was revealed by radiography, and was extracted via the nasal passage. It is a surgical instrument of recent date, a combined director and scoop, lost by Mr Rumsey in 1851.

The body cavities have been filled with dense packing material which could well contain the four visceral packs. As a result of this much bone detail is obscured, but what can be seen of the spine and ribs appears normal. There is no evidence of opacification of the intervertebral discs or of spinal arthritis. The bones of the pelvis and hips appear within normal limits.

Extended. the palms of the hands, fingers extended, rest upon the anterior-medial aspect of the thighs. No fractures seen.

The bones and joints appear within normal limits apart from lines of arrested growth at the lower end of either tibia. No fractures or dislocations seen. The feet appear normal.

Object specifics

  • Type
    Animal Remains
  • Culture
    Third Intermediate Period
  • Artist/Maker
  • Place made
    Africa: Northern Africa: Egypt: Thebes
  • Date made
    747 BC - 656 BC (Dynasty 25) about
  • Materials
    Linen; Human Body-Part; Resin
  • Location
    World Museum, Level 3, Ancient Egypt Gallery
  • Acquisition
    Gift of Gloucester City Museum
  • Collector
    James Burton
  • Place collected
    Africa: Northern Africa: Egypt: Thebes
  • Date collected
  • Measurements
    275 mm x 410 mm x 1650 mm
  • Note
    Acquired by James Burton in Thebes, possibly in 1825 when he records in his journal that he saw a mummy for sale in the house of Piccinini the dealer. In 1828 Burton sent the mummy and coffins to Grove House, Regent's Park, London (in the care of George Bellas Greenough). The coffins and mummy were seen by the Scottish antiquarian Robert Hay (1799-1863) in Thebes, about 1826, and called by him 'Mr Burton's mummy' at this time.
  • Related people
    Decimus Burton ( Previous owner); James Burton ( Collector, previous owner); Septimus Burton ( Previous owner); Gloucester City Museum ( Previous owner); Gloucester Literary and Scientific Society ( Previous owner); Edmund Hopkinson ( Previous owner)

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    Author: Loynes, Robert
    Publisher: Archaeopress
    Date: 2015
    Description: This publication brings together personal analyses of sixty CT scans of ancient Egyptian human mummies collected from many museums throughout the UK and continental Europe, including eight from World Museum, Liverpool. The effect is that of performing ‘virtual autopsies’ (‘virtopsies’) allowing techniques of mummification to be examined. The historical age of the mummies ranges from the Middle Kingdom to the Roman Period. Several new observations are made regarding the preparation of mummies and confirmation of previously described themes is tempered by the observation of variations probably indicating individual workshop practices. The work presents a springboard for further detailed research on the subject.

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Previous owners

  • Gloucester City Museum

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: From the Gloucester Literary and Scientific Society
    Owned until: 1953
    Disposal method: Donation
  • Gloucester Literary and Scientific Society

    Owned from: 1851
    How acquired: From Edmund Hopkinson
    Owned until: Unknown or unrecorded
    Disposal method: Transferred from Gloucester City Museum
  • Edmund Hopkinson

    Owned from: 1848-12
    How acquired: Bought in a raffle
    Owned until: 1851
    Disposal method: Donation
  • Decimus Burton

    Owned from: 1842
    How acquired: Inherited
    Owned until: 1848-12
    Disposal method: Sold in a raffle
  • Septimus Burton

    Owned from: 1840
    How acquired: Purchased from James Burton
    Owned until: 1842
    Disposal method: Bequest
  • James Burton

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Purchased
    Owned until: 1840
    Disposal method: Sold to Septimus Burton
Object view = Humanities
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