About this object

Fragment of an inscribed linen mummy bandage with two registers, each containing thirteen columns of hieroglyphic text which are spells from the Book of the Dead concerning the negative confession (Chapter 125). Traditionally in the negative confessions, the deceased is represented adoring the forty-two assessors of the dead and declares to them that he has not committed any sins and that he is therefore ‘True of Voice’ and worthy of reaching the kingdom of Osiris. The names of the forty-two assessors are written in black ink in the top columns and each name is preceded by the exclamation "O" written in red ink, indicating that the deceased is directly addressing the assessor in question. The bottom columns contain the negative confessions of the deceased written in black ink, each preceded by the negative word 'nn' written in red ink. The text is to be read from right to left, reading downwards from the top of the column, as the deceased makes a different confession in front of a different assessor.

Object specifics

  • Type
  • Culture
  • Artist/Maker
  • Place made
    Africa: Northern Africa: Egypt
  • Date made
    332 BC - 30 BC about
  • Materials
    Linen; Wood
  • Location
    Item not currently on display
  • Acquisition
    Gift of Joseph Mayer
  • Collector
    Joseph Sams
  • Place collected
    Africa: Northern Africa: Egypt
  • Date collected
    1850 about
  • Measurements
    170 mm x 270 mm
  • Related people
    Joseph Mayer ( Previous owner); Joseph Sams ( Collector, previous owner)

Explore related


  • Catalogue of the Mayer Collection Part 1. The Egyptian, Babylonian and Assyrian Antiquities. Second and Revised Edition

    Gatty, Charles

    Author: Gatty, Charles
    Publisher: The Committee of the Liverpool Free Public Library, Museum and Gallery of Art
    Date: 1879
    Description: 83 page illustrated catalogue of Joseph Mayer's Egyptian and Near Eastern collection that was on display. It also includes a small number of other collections, such as those given by Mr William Crosfield in 1861, some by Mr Charles Stoess in 1869, and others by Mr J. A. Tinne in 1870. Occasionally reference will be made to the provenance of objects, in particular if they are from the Joseph Sams or Lord Valentia collections. The woodcut illustrations were produced by the noted Victorian illustrator and engraver, Llewellynn Frederick William Jewitt FSA. Compared to Mayer's 1852 catalogue there are more detailed descriptions for inscribed objects such as stelae, giving names and titles and the character of the text. Much of this information was provided by Samuel Birch of the British Museum who visited the collections in March 1877.


Previous owners

  • Joseph Mayer

    Owned from: 1850
    How acquired: Purchased
    Owned until: 1867
    Disposal method: Donation
  • Joseph Sams

    Owned from: Unknown or unrecorded
    How acquired: Purchased
    Owned until: 1850
    Disposal method: Sold
Object view = Humanities
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